Friday, April 10, 2015

Gyno Prevention and Reversal

To first understand why you are doing what you are doing - a few definitions:

SERM - Selective estrogen Receptor Modulator. These drugs work by binding to the estrogen receptors and flooding them in a sense, making it difficult (but not impossible by any means) for estrogen to bind to the receptors and thus prevent the onset of estrogen related side effects.
Most common forms: Tamoxifen (Nolvadex), Clomiphene (clomid)
AI - Aromatise Inhibitor. These drugs work by inhibiting the aromatization of estrogen. This means that in effect AI's prevent androgens from converting to estrogen, again, making it difficult (but not impossible) for estrogen to reach receptor sites.
Most common forms: Anastrozole (l-dex, a-dex), Exemestane (Aromasin), FEMARA (Letrozole). For our purpose of reversing gyno we are interested in Letro.

Letro and your sex drive:
Letrozole will suppress your sex drive. This is another reason why it is so important to act on preventing gyno as soon as possible. Since we all know that Test should be run in every cycle this will cancel out the effect of sex drive suppression.

Running letro to prevent gyno:
If you decide to run estrogen protection while on cycle (and I suggest you do unless you are aware that you do not require it), you can run either a SERM or an AI. Letro will be the most powerful AI you can use, it will inhibit 98+% of estrogen using a dose as low as .25mg and even lower. This is why I suggest you do not use a dose higher than .50mg while on cycle just trying to prevent estrogen related side effects.

You will want to start running the letro approximately 2 weeks before you begin your cycle to allow it to fully stabilize in your blood. I have often heard the argument that letro takes up to 60 days to stabilize, I don't know if I buy into this for the reason that I have reversed gyno after using letro for only 1 week. Still to be safe I recommend starting it before your cycle as stated above.

If you do decide to run letro there is absolutely no need to run another AI or SERM. Do not make the mistake of thinking more is better. Think of it this way; if letro is preventing the conversion of androgens to estrogen than there is no estrogen, what would the purpose of a SERM be when there is no estrogen to bind to the receptors? Nolva will only take away from the effectiveness of letro.

This brings me to my next point. Do not listen to anyone who tells you to bump up your Nolvadex to 60+mg ED if you get gyno. I have no idea where this idea started but I have seen it suggest far too many times recently. Nolvadex will do nothing to reverse your gyno - let me make that clear IT WILL DO NOTHING FOR gyno. If you are running nolva as your anti-E and start to develop gyno than sure you can bump the dosage a small amount to try to prevent it from progressing further, but Letrozole must begin ASAP.

It is very important that you begin taking Letrozole immediately, the longer your wait the more risk you take in not being able to reverse it.

How do I know if I have gyno?
If you have developed gyno you will have a lump behind your nipple. It will be fairly hard, and it will be tender to touch.

Running letrozole to reverse gyno:
I am going to go over the three different scenarios which people could fit into. Remember regardless of what scenario you are in it is important that you begin taking the letro ASAP.

1. Already using an anti-E aside from letro.
2. Already using letro @ a dose of .25mg or .50mg ED.
3. Not running any estrogen protection.

Day 1: .25mg Letro + anti-E*
Day 2: .50mg Letro
Day 3: 1.0mg Letro
Day 4: 1.5mg Letro
Day 5: 2.0mg Letro
Day 6: 2.5mg Letro **

Day 1: .50mg Letro
Day 2: 1.0mg Letro
Day 3: 1.5mg Letro
Day 4: 2.0mg Letro
Day 5: 2.5mg Letro **

Day 1: .50mg Letro
Day 2: 1.0mg Letro
Day 3: 1.5mg Letro
Day 4: 2.0mg Letro
Day 5: 2.5mg Letro **

*Regardless of the anti-E you are using it is important to still use it for the first day you begin letro as the letro will not have taken any effect and you by no means want your body to be without any protection when gyno is already prevalent.

** You will remain at this dose until gyno symptoms subside. Once you believe your gyno is gone it is important to stay at this dose for another 4-7 days to ensure all traces are gone. I recommend people with a bf% over 15 stay on for a week as it may be harder to judge completely whether the lump is completely gone. Once this period is over it will be important to taper letro down slowly rather than coming off it completely. Regardless of which manner you tapered up your dose you will all taper down in the same fashion.

Day 1: 2.0mg
Day 2: 1.5mg
Day 3: 1.0mg
Day 4: .50mg***
Day 5: .25mg
***You can remain at this dose or go down further to .25mg. It is really up to you at this point. They are both very common maintenance doses as an anti-E while on cycle. Personally I have stayed with .25mg and never had a problem.

Letro and the estrogen rebound:
With your estrogen being completely inhibited there is a definite estrogen rebound as your body tries to re-stabilize the testosterone :estrogen balance. We can prevent this rebound effect by supplementing further with another AI or SERM. So, I suggest that when you are coming to the end of your cycle you will more than likely be using Nolva in your PCT so just make sure that you begin taking nolva the last day you are going to take your letro and then continue on as you would with regular PCT.

This now leads us into the question of reversing gyno while not on cycle. There are a few things to remember here. You have already waited longer than you should have, and your sex drive will be shot. You can use tribulus or another natural test booster to help you in this scenario but I can't guarantee the effectiveness. Just follow gyno reversal protocols 2 or 3. When coming off again you must taper and begin using Nolvadex to prevent any rebound effect that may occur.

How much Nolvadex should you use if you are not going into PCT and running this off cycle? I suggest starting at 20mg ED for a week and then lowering it to 10mg for another week and then coming off completely.

Friday, March 27, 2015

What Are the Real Problems Associated with Trenbolone Use?

A key thing to consider with trenbolone is dosage.
Back in 1998 when the 50 mg/day trenbolone dosage was nearly-unheard-of and was very contrary to the published advice of the time. The books of the era advised using no more than 1 Parabolan ampule per week, as the steroid was so strong: the amount of trenbolone contained in such an ampule is the same as 50 mg of trenbolone acetate. Among the hardcore who would not be limited by the advice of the day, Finaject was sometimes used at 50 mg two or three times a week. Daily use of such an amount of trenbolone was just not an accepted practice at all in the United States.

However, in Europe daily injection of Parabolan was an accepted practice among the serious and experienced. Hence, 50 mg/day trenbolone acetate. A 50 mg/day was perceived then as a very high level, and it actually is a pretty high level of drug. Trenbolone should be thought of as about 3 times more potent (strength per milligram) than most anabolic steroids; on that basis, 50 mg/day is “like” about 150 mg/day of another steroid. It’s not a low dose. No surprise if it has its own significant side effects.

These days, however, largely from 75 mg/mL and 100 mg/mL concentrations being available, doses have popularly risen to 75 or 100 mg/day. People always realize how high such doses really are. Let alone 150 mg/day.

It’s not surprising that some experience adverse side effects from such increased doses.

In terms of side effects the great majority do well with 50 mg/day, a few require dosage to be as little as about 30-35 mg/day, and an even smaller number just really don’t do well with trenbolone at all, principally for the reasons you say, and with night sweats as another potential reason.

And then there are those also who can use 75-100 mg/day or more without real problem.

For behavior, there is exercise of the will. For some this is effective; for others, not very effective. It has to be personally evaluated. For sleep problems, if ordinarily needing no sleep-aiding supplement, then for example a well-formulated product can sometimes be enough to make the difference.

Many bodybuilders found real benefit with Mod GRF 1-29. It doesn’t promote falling asleep, but does promote deep-cycle sleep once sleep has begun. It’s not a necessity but can be a help.

Friday, March 13, 2015

Do you have bouts of coughing when taking Tren?

Unlike Deca, Trenbolone is a great steroid for muscle mass and most of mass you build is pure muscle fibers with minimum water retention. Trenbolone has amazing anabolic result. Why is it so? There are several factors.

For one, Trenbolone increases level of anabolic hormone IGF-1 in muscle tissue. It also affects "satellite cells" (cells that "repair" damaged muscle) to be more sensitive to IGF-1 and other growth factors. DNA in muscle cell increases significantly in muscle cell.

Trenbolone has strong ability to attach to androgenic receptors, much stronger than testosterone. This is important because the stronger steroid attaches to androgenic receptor, component works stronger on muscle growth factors, which depend on androgenic receptors.

buysteroids_tren-75There is also strong evidence that component that attaches well to androgenic receptors helps in fat loss.

However, some users report strong tren cough during Trenbolone use, just after they inject themselves. Reports say that cough lasts from 30 seconds to few minutes or even more. Cough is unstoppable once it starts, and can even cause chest pain.

Why does it happen to so many users? Let's see some explanations.

Take care when using Trenbolone Acetate

There are reports that tren cough occurs more often in users of Trenbolone Acetate then in athletes who use Trenbolone E. It happens because Trenbolone Acetate irritates some tissues. If you try it orally, you will notice that it is very spicy.

Trenbolone Acetate irritates lung cells if taken in larger amount. Sometimes, while injecting, Trenbolone acetate will get into smaller blood vessel or lymphatic system, in which case Trenbolone will reach lung cells fast, causing strong cough.

Only some injections cause Tren Cough

As it turns out from various reports, it is really a matter of luck weather you will experience tren cough or not. Sometimes users inject Trenbolone for days or weeks without negative side-effects in form of cough. For some users, it happens with first injecting, but it might not happen later on in cycle.

Recommendation of use

In order to decrease possibility often cough occurrence, you should keep dosage of Trenbolone Acetate under 50 mg/mL. If possible, it shouldn't contain benzyl alcohol.

Another suggestion to prevent cough is, if you are using 2 substances (such as Testosterone and Trenbolone), first inject the Trenbolone and then Testosterone. This will decrease possibility of Trenbolone getting into your bloodstream.

Duration of Tren Cough

In the end, if nothing helps but you end up with tren cough, there is nothing to do but to try to relax and let it go away on its own. Positive thing is that cough usually doesn't last too long. The Duration of Tren Cough can be:

-          30 seconds – usually

-          over 60 seconds – rarely

-          up to 90 seconds – extreme cases

Tren cough is in most cases simply a matter of (bad) luck. It doesn't happen every time, and if it occurs ones when you cycle Tren it doesn't have to mean that it will happen next time again.

Tren cough is very unpleasant especially when it becomes very strong. It may be very irritating and in worst cases may cause trouble breathing.

The good news is that it lasts shortly, for up to minute with no consequence for yo. Therefore, if nothing helps just wait for it to pass. A cough longer than a 1-2 minutes is a sign of another health problem, so that make sure you take a closer look of what it can be.

Tren cough happens more often with Trenbolone Acetate use than with Tren E. Dosage is important as cough occurs especially when large doses of Tren are administrated for one use (up to 50-75 mg/mL).

If you want to build massive muscle fast using tren then assume the risk to get cough, in some cases even severe form of it.

Tuesday, February 17, 2015

The Fat Burning Machine - Clenbuterol

Clenbuterol is a B-2 agonist used for the treatment of asthma. B-2 receptors are present in the smooth muscles of bronchus and are stimulated in response to use of clenbuterol which relaxes these muscles resulting in a wider airway and relieving the symptoms of asthma.

Like any other drug, clenbuterol also has many other effects and side effects. The one effect important for this article is its effect to burn fat. This effect makes clenbuterol being used as a fat loss drug for bodybuilders and athletes.

How to use clenbuterol?

The recommended dosage for clenbuterol is 40mcg and can be increased up to a maximum of 120mcg. If the dose is increased over 120mcg the side effects may start to appear.

For weight reduction by burning fat it is recommended to start with a small dose and progressively increase to the optimum level in small increments of 10mcg to 20mcg every couple of weeks.

Similarly, when the desired level of fat thickness is achieved, it is recommended to taper off the dose in small decrements every couple of weeks until you reach the initial dose of 40mcg. Once the daily dose of 40mcg is reached the drug can discontinued altogether.

Effects of clenbuterol

The following are noted as the effects of clenbuterol:

    Relaxation of smooth muscles especially of airways.
    Aerobiccapacity will be increased
    Imporvement in CNSS (central nervous systemstimulation),
    Blood pressure,
    Rate Increment within a body = Fat Metabolism + increase in Body’s BMR

Side effects of clenbuterol

Clenbuterol when used for asthma or weight loss has been shown to have the following side effects:

    Subaortic stenosis,
    High blood pressure,
    Myocardial infarction or heart attack.

How to manage side effects?

In case of occurrence of side effects reduce the dose but never stop the drug suddenly. If the side effects persist then visiting a doctor is highly recommended. Always remember that every drug takes some time to act and for its effects to become apparent and increasing the dose will not help increase the rate of effects of the drug.

Is dieting required with clenbuterol?

Clenbuterol increases the BMR of the body. BMR or basal metabolic rate can be thought of as the amount of energy expenditure required to sustain the minimal requirements of the body. When clenbuterol is ingested and BMR increases, the glucose of the body is used quickly to sustain the basic mechanisms of the body.

Once the glucose is exhausted, keeping only the essential amounts required for functioning of the brain, body starts using deposited fats.  Fats are bulky in nature and, when burnt, reduce weight of the body. It is these fats that prevent visibility of muscles to the naked eye preventing appreciation of complete shape of the body builders’ physique. This happens because fats take up the position between skin and muscle folds.

Dieting is required to a certain extent if you want to lose fat and reduce weight. Food continuously provides us with glucose and as long as glucose is available to the body, it will not move on to utilize fat.

Eat a protein rich diet to help your muscles grow and cut down on fats and carbs to prevent giving an alternate source of fuel to the body.

Other requirements while using clenbuterol

An increase in BMR means spending energy of the body and evaporating it in the form of heat energy. To neutralize this excess heat produces, one needs to drink lots of fluids, mainly water. Water also helps in excretion of waste products formed as a result of bulky muscles and prevents damage to kidneys.

Friday, December 19, 2014

Build New Muscle Over The Holiday Season

For the next few weeks, switch your goal from fat-loss to muscle-building. You’ll effectively utilize those extra calories and feel less stressed about having a few bites of pie!

Oh, joy, the holidays are upon us! Oh, wait, how do I get through the season without packing on 10 unwanted pounds? As if the media senses this widespread dread, airwaves and magazine racks are jammed with tips about which foods to avoid and warnings about keeping on track.

The anxiety about gaining unwanted pounds can add to your already high holiday stress level. But it doesn’t have to be that way. With a short-term goal change, your holidays can be a lot more cheerful and a lot less stressful. Namely, for the next few weeks, I want you to take a break from your usual fat-loss plans and switch to building muscle.

If that makes you a little nervous, remember, the more lean mass you have, the leaner you’ll be. It takes a lot of calories to build and maintain muscle mass. So don’t fear the gains.

Here are four reasons the holidays provide the perfect platform for your short-term muscle-building program!

You can’t build muscle without a caloric surplus. So if you know you’ll be eating more that usual, a muscle-building goal makes a lot of sense.

Now, don’t be fooled into thinking you can eat a box of chocolates, two slices of pumpkin pie, and all the stuffing you can handle every day because “it’s your goal.” You still have to exercise control and choose wisely. You want to provide your body with the nutrition it needs to build muscle. For example, a sugar-only diet won’t help you gain anything other than insulin resistance and headaches.


Depending on your family traditions, dinner can be a glorious, meat-heavy affair. Both turkey and beef provide all the amino acids you need for muscle building. Beef provides more iron and creatine, but turkey has less fat and cholesterol. Whichever meat is on your plate, a heaping pile of protein means you may not need your usual casein shake before bed. If you’re going to over-eat, doing it with protein-laden meat is probably the best choice.

If you’re trying to build lean mass, you can’t skimp on the carbs. Carbohydrates are an absolutely essential piece of muscle-building. Carbs are your body’s fuel source; they support muscle growth, prevent muscle break-down, and taste good to boot!

A scoop of mashed potatoes and a little butter will provide the energy you need to work out hard and recover faster.

Potatoes are clean carbs and the fat in the butter will help slow the absorption rate so your blood glucose doesn’t spike, prompting a large insulin secretion that may lead to a subsequent crash and fat storage promotion.

With the holidays come some vacation days for many people, so use this extra time to hit the gym more frequently. Now, that doesn’t mean go to the gym for three hours and chat for five minutes between sets. More important than the time you’re in the gym is the intensity with which you train.

What’s great about having some extra time is that you can make those intense training sessions more frequent. Instead of only getting in three workouts during the week, you can do four or five. That extra training, coupled with extra calories, can pay off in muscle mass.


muscle building 1 0 250x167 Build New Muscle Over The Holiday SeasonI suggest utilizing a split that will challenge your body with an upper-body push emphasis on day one, an upper-body pull emphasis on the second day, and a leg emphasis on the third. Take a rest day, and then do it again. While full-body programs like the 5X5 regimen can also be effective for building mass, leave those for the busier times during the year when you only have a few days per week to train.

If you have family or friends in town, bring one of them with you to the gym. Invite one of your more fit cousins for some extra motivation, or ask dear ol’ dad if he’d like to join you for some bonding time. Spread the fitness cheer!

The time off from work may also allow you some extra sleeping and relaxing time. You can push your body as hard as possible when you’re in the gym because you know you get to go home and put your feet up. Don’t worry about “feeling lazy.”

Many of us spend too much time buzzing around without much rest. Enjoy the time off you earned and allow your muscles to recover and rebuild.

Try to grab an extra hour or two of shut-eye. Aside from being essential for the cellular health and hormonal balance in your body, sleep is necessary for building muscle. Human growth hormone is at its highest levels when you sleep and chemicals like dopamine and adrenaline—which you use for intense training—are mostly replenished at night.

For some people, sufficient sleep is a luxury they can’t afford. Unfortunately, sleep debt has many negative impacts on the body. It may actually decrease testosterone and increase the catabolic hormone cortisol1, two side effects no bodybuilder wants. That means it’s much, much harder for your body to build muscle.

You can do your body even more good by scheduling your meals to fit your training schedule. Doing this isn’t always possible when you’re on a strict work schedule, but time off from work allows for changes to your normal schedule.

Structure your meal plan so the bulk of your calories enter your body around your workout. If you know you have a larger holiday meal that day, hit the gym for a heavy legs session right before you eat. After a hard workout, your glycogen levels will be lower and primed for refilling. Your muscles will also be tired and broken down. They need protein and carbs to rebuild.


This is the time when it’s OK to consume enough carbs to produce an insulin spike. At this juncture, rather than promote fat storage, an insulin spike will help move carbs into the muscle, accelerate carbohydrate resynthesis, and help your muscle tissue to repair. If those holiday treats like cookies or brownies won’t stop calling your name, eat one right after a tough workout. The sugar will help refill your lower glucose levels.

It’s also smart to fuel your workouts. Whole, healthy food can help you train with intensity and focus. You’ll have the energy to completely demolish your workout and the security of knowing that you have a great meal to come back to when you’re done.

By making this change to your fitness goal, you won’t have to enter this holiday season with dread. Instead, you can welcome it knowing that you will be using excess calories, time, and flexibility to your advantage.

Rather than trying to avoid everything and everybody you’re worried will influence your fitness level, you’ll be able to relax and enjoy this special time of year. You can always return to your regular fat-loss program after the holidays.

Friday, December 12, 2014

Alcohol’s Effect on Muscle Growth

Those who are bodybuilders or those who are just looking for getting a better shape for their bodies are certainly wondering how the alcohol works for the muscle growth. It is known by everyone that the alcohol consumption can be harmful for the human body, especially for the liver, but the moderated consumption of alcohol it’s not harmful.

For those who are working out the calories are very important. That’s why some of those people who are training, with or without help from the steroids are wondering if the calories from the alcohol are counted for their bodies or not.

Usually those who are consuming alcohol are having a lower weight than those who are never drinking. One of the reasons why this is happening is because the fat and carbohydrates are exchanged for the calories from the alcohol.

The thermic effect of food should also be taken in calculation because this effect is lowering the level of calories contained by alcohols.

The effect of alcohol on testosterone

Some studies have shown that those who are consuming alcohol are having a low level of testosterone and that alcohol can decrease the level of testosterone from the human body. This thing could be very bad for the bodybuilders, because they need testosterone in order to gain muscle mass, burn the fat and to have the necessary energy and strength for working out.

However, some studies also shown that the level of testosterone is decreasing only if a person consume 10 beers per day, for a period of two weeks. There were a lot of tests done to see the real effect of alcohol for the bodybuilders and the opinions are certainly divided.

Moreover, alcohol is producing dehydration, and this thing is certainly not good for the bodybuilders. It is also slowing the ability of the human body to heal, even if we talk about organs or skin tissue.
The nutrient absorption

One of the ugliest things that can be caused by the alcohol will be the absorption of some important nutrients. For those who didn’t know, alcohol is absorbing B1, B12, folic acid and zinc, and these vitamins are excellent for the human body.

As an example, if there is not enough folic acid in the human’s body, this could lead to a blood disorder which is having a negative effect on the endurance of a person.

That’s not exactly what a bodybuilder or athlete is trying to obtain. Some people also said that alcohol can be also excellent for working out because it’s giving enough energy for that. Everyone knows the effect of alcohol when it’s not consumed with moderation.

The final conclusion

Alcohol can be consumed by those who are injecting or taking steroids, but only if they are doing it with moderation. If you go out and you are a bodybuilder you don’t have to drink only water or natural juice.

Three or four beers won’t bring you any harm; only try to avoid doing a habit out of it. In addition, the alcohol will never affect your body condition if you really know how to drink alcohol.

Try to avoid as much as you can to get drunk but for that you will have to know your limits and to ignore what your friends will say.

As an example, if you go out every weekend, you can consume alcohol as long as you don’t cross your own limit. You should also have a whole month in which you don’t drink anything, because this way your body will heal, especially your liver.

For the best results, it’s recommended to avoid the consumption of alcohol.

Friday, December 5, 2014

Can Steroids Cause Hair Loss?

Genetics play an important role in the sports world. In body building genetics plays an even more important part. For many, their genetic predisposition to gain lean muscle easily will give them an obvious advantage of the more thinly framed. For others, it’s their ability to loss body fat without losing muscle that will help them gain the edge. With this focus on genetics, it’s to be reminded of other genetic factors that come into play. Hair loss is one of them. Not everyone is affected by hair loss. Some men will start showing signs of baldness in their late twenties; others will keep their well into their twilight years.

If members of your family are prone to male pattern baldness, it is more than likely that you also have the genetic markers. Anabolic steroids will only serve to speed up this process. An understanding of what is in anabolic steroids and how your body processes will help you to understand why it is that you should avoid using steroids.


DHT (Dihydrotestosterone) is a substance in your body that binds to receptors in hair follicles causing a thinning of the hairline. DHT is made when testosterone is converted by an enzyme called 5AR (5 Alpha reductase). If you have a genetic disposition for male pattern baldness then you already have the necessary substances flowing through your body. Testosterone and 5AR. Whats worse is that some steroids don’t even have to be converted. Anadrol and Winstrol are derived from DHT. This means that they don’t have to be converted to affect your hairline. They are able to bind directly to the hair follicles. There are several other steroids on the market that interact differently with your body, almost all of them having a negative effect on your hairline.

DHT can also have cause another change in your body chemistry. DHT can actually signal the body’s immune system to attack hair follicles. So now, not only is your body chemistry creating a hostile growth environment for hair, but it is also telling your body to attack hair follicles.

 Will it grow back?

Most likely some of you are reading this because you noticed a few too many hairs were lining the sink this morning. The important thing is that you realize this. If you are cycling steroids and your hair starts falling out, it means your hair follicles are sensitive to androgens. Unless you’ve decided to embrace baldness, you need to stop immediately. If you have a family history of male pattern baldness, you have probably activated it prematurely. At this point your only hope is to slow its onset. You’re next step is to visit an endocrinologist. Only a qualified medical professional can diagnose and treat your condition.

In the interest of full disclosure, it is difficult if not impossible to grow hair back that was lost due to high levels of DHT. Your goal at this point is to dramatically slow down the process.

 Body Image

Think about why most people start body building in the first place. Chances are it is to fix some body image issues. What were your reasons? Whatever they may be, at the root of it is a desire to be respected. It takes a lot of motivation and determination to reach your goals. Is the risk of steroids unwanted side effects worth it? For some the answer is yes.

Do steroids cause hair loss? No but if you have any genetic disposition to losing your hair early or if anyone in your family suffers from male pattern baldness, your choice to use steroids could very well speed it up. Compounding this danger is the fact that some people realize they could lose their hair. So in an effort to protect their hairline, they use solutions like Finasteride, Nizoral, Minoxidil thinking that these alone will protect their hair. The truth is they are only going to help slow things down. Once your the genes that cause baldness have been turned on, their damage is permanent. Baldness is not simply a symptom of a hormone imbalance. Male pattern baldness is a result. Results like baldness can be permanent. The best way to avoid hair loss from steroid use is to avoid steroids from the beginning.

Choosing a natural approach to body building may be hard. If you people want to get the results from steroids only then it seems impossible. You have to change your mind set. The benefits of a long term change in lifestyle will far outweigh any short term gains from steroids.